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    歡迎訪問海崖學網 您還沒有 [ 登錄 ] [ 注冊 ]

    《穆旦譯文集》穆旦之死和查良錚的誕生

    時間:2013-01-30    來源:網絡整理    作者:泓秋水   閱讀:

    《穆旦譯文集》有一些出版社陸續地出版過穆旦的詩集和譯文,但都沒有系統地對他的詩歌文章和譯文做一個整理。一直以來,對于穆旦仍然有不少有失公允的評價。希望《穆旦譯文集》能證明穆旦是一個優秀的詩人和翻譯家。

    ———李芳(北京教育學院院長)

    許多讀者是循著王小波的足跡而追隨到查良錚的。他們傾服于王小波的理性和智慧,因此也相信他的眼光。在我看來,《穆旦譯文集》這個書名并不準確,因為查良錚才是他在翻譯外國詩歌時使用的本名,而穆旦則是他早年從事詩歌創作時使用的筆名。作為“九葉派詩人”的穆旦在1958年就已經死亡,剩下的則是作為翻譯家的查良錚,在無法進行詩歌創作的情況下,他把滿腔熱情傾注于外國詩歌的譯介,于是就有了這8卷譯文集。

    查良錚的翻譯工作始于1954年,當時,他在南開大學外文系任副教授,利用教學的業余時間先后翻譯出版了《波爾塔亞》、《青銅騎士》《加甫神頌》、《高加索的俘虜》及《文學原理》、《普希金抒情詩選集》、《歐根·奧涅金》、《拜倫抒情詩選》、《布萊克詩選》等十幾本詩集和兩本文學評論。及至1958年以后,他又陸續翻譯出版了《濟慈詩選》、《云雀》(雪萊著)、《別林斯基論文學》、《雪萊抒情詩選》、《唐璜》等,并對以前的部分譯作進行了修訂。香港學者馬文通稱查良錚(穆旦)是“一個杰出的詩歌翻譯家,迄今為止中國詩歌翻譯史成就最大的一人”。孫劍平認為,在《歐根·奧涅金》的五個譯本中,“若以詩味濃郁、才氣橫溢而論,當首推查譯本”。王佐良先生說,在《唐璜》這部巨著中,“譯者的一枝能適應各種變化的詩筆,譯者的白話體詩歌語言,譯者對詩歌女神的脾氣的熟悉,譯者要在文學上繼續有所建樹的決心———這一切都體現在這個譯本之中”,他稱贊查良錚翻譯《唐璜》所取得的成就是空前的。此外,周玨良和杜運燮等多人都曾撰文,談到了穆旦的翻譯藝術和成就。

    從這些名家的贊賞中,我們不難判斷查良錚在外國文學作品翻譯中的地位。從他所留下的文字里,不用太費勁,讀者就可以品味到譯者對文字高超的把握能力和錘煉技巧。那決不僅僅是一種文字的轉換,而是凝聚作者苦心孤詣的再創作。

    名字控

    可以說,穆旦的創作激情被轉換到查良錚的翻譯之中,以另一種形式得到了體現。

    詩人黃燦然在《穆旦:贊美之后的失望》一文中曾表達了對穆旦的失望,“現在我才發現,穆旦也不能免俗。從一九五一年到一九七六年,穆旦共寫了三十八首詩,其中五十年代的作品完全加入了當時口號詩和教條詩的大合唱。不看內容,單看這些標題吧:《美國怎樣教育下一代》、《感恩節———可恥的債》、《去學習會》、《三門峽工程有感》、《九十九家爭鳴記》。”黃燦然發現了杰出詩人的穆旦。

    質問穆旦“為甚么不承認自己怯懦?為甚么不承認自己缺乏詩人應有的獨立精神?”的確,這樣的問難不無道理。然而,黃燦然并不知道,作為杰出詩人的穆旦那時已經自我宣告了詩歌創作生命的死亡。對此,我們應該以一種同情的理解來看待,但不能苛求。更不能因此推論“他缺乏成為偉大詩人所需的深層素質。”

    我們可以以穆旦的經歷來鞭策自己,并在某些層面上繼承和超越他。

    不管是穆旦還是查良錚,都給今天的讀者留下了豐厚的遺產———僅此一點,我們就應該向他表示足夠的敬意。

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