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    歡迎訪問海崖學網 您還沒有 [ 登錄 ] [ 注冊 ]

    柏楊:《中國人史綱》

    時間:2012-12-14    來源:網絡整理    作者:柏楊     閱讀:

    臺灣作家柏楊的代表作《中國人史綱》是他于1968年至1977年期間在獄中寫成的。該書被列為臺灣社會影響力最大的10部書之一,最近由同心出版社推出的、其親自審訂、重新配圖的版本,是目前內地最為權威和完整的版本。


    《中國人史綱》(全三冊)柏楊著 同心出版社2005年9月版 定價:75.00元

    《中國人史綱》是一部舊書。當年讀時,如受電擊;十多年后重讀,百感交集。

    在白話國史著述里,一直有著截然相反的兩種態度:一種是極力贊揚的,如宣揚中國文明的燦爛、偉大等的書,這是接續了宋以后的儒家文化史觀、精英史觀;一種是極力否定的,認為中國歷史充滿了殺戮、骯臟、苦難,這是一種黑暗史觀、專制史觀。柏楊的《中國人史綱》雖屬于后者,但仍堪稱獨特。這是一部在監獄里寫成的史書。

    這個看過地獄的人講歷史,跟學者在書齋里的講史自然不同,對個人生存的高度重視,使他對以往的統治者充滿了蔑視———站在現代文明的立場上,帝王將相不過是人渣而已,是心智可笑可憐亦極可恨的罪人。書中有大量這樣的句子:“石勒從他母親身旁被捕去時,只二十一歲,千年以后我們仍可聽到那衣不蔽體的老婦人絕望的哭聲,她沒有地方申訴,因為犯罪的就是合法的朝廷。”

    名字控

    柏楊的力量在于,他既有《資治通鑒》這樣傳統史書的基礎,又有自己獨特的“文化醬缸”理論。

    他對歷史絕不缺乏“溫情和敬意”,他稱道中國人的文明成就,但更直面中國人的“丑陋”。

    自宋開始,中國的制度、文化成為士大夫們寄生的樂園。這個精英群體稱道禮教、名教治國,自己卻太沒有識見和節操。在濮議事件中,“歐陽修、韓琦都是最頑強的保守派,只不過在父子至情上偶爾流露一點靈性,就立刻受到兇暴的待遇。”在南宋面臨亡國之際,“蒙古兵團在毫無抵抗的情形下,進抵臨安。宋政府已經瓦解,包括宰相在內的當權官員,以及日夜都在思念忠君愛國的道學家士大夫群,大都逃走。”在大禮議事件中,“衛道之士大為震動,一個個中風狂走,好像到了世界末日。楊廷和的兒子楊慎尤其激烈,他大聲疾呼說:國家養士一百五十年,仗節死義,正在今日。”以至于后來郭嵩燾給李鴻章寫信,仍感嘆這個寄生的階層,他說,中國之大患,在于士大夫沒有見識。

    因此,宋明以后的中國災難,更多地屬于文明退化后的報應。就像黃仁宇等史家承認的,在這種文明里,沒有人能逃脫,沒有人有安全感。人人都有了“行貨感”(王小波語),天理、道義撕破了建立在血緣之上的人性之善,于是地緣、家國也顯出猙獰。

    當年讀柏楊,少年意氣,只看到自家文化傳統的悲哀,看到先人們的可憐;十多年過后,對歷史的解讀越來越近于傳統文人的感懷,多是不及物、不用時事的空洞想法。

    我們所憑借的思想資源和歷史正義仍是匱乏。歷史才是中國人的宗教,無論是孔子集大成并側重于儒家的歷史寫作,還是司馬遷那樣傾向于道家的歷史寫作,都使得個人的言行獲得了不朽的意義。但現代的史書寫作,少有維護這種中國式的宗教信念。

    我批評過唐德剛先生的三峽論、黃仁宇先生的大歷史觀,他們建立的歷史評價系統,是一種歷史主義的觀念,而無視個人的努力和人生追求。在不同的歷史階段、歷史任務的大歷史觀里,生活在黑暗時代的個人似乎是不幸的、無意義的。歷史主義筆下的個人言行,是一種不可抗拒的宿命使然。

    我們今天仍活在這種種史觀的陰影里。柏楊的《中國人史綱》盡管有著尊重個人尤其人民的底蘊,但仍屬于這種決定論式的史觀。只不過,他是文化決定論者。在這種史觀作用下,他對歷史人物的解讀往往流于隨意,比如說楊廣、完顏亮等人患有“大頭癥”,這類解讀近乎市井理性;或者以現代的觀念去理解古人,比如說,“楊廣具有絕頂的聰明才能,但他缺欠人類所特有的高級靈魂和情操。”此外,就是把不能為理性解釋的人物事件歸為謎。

    這樣的例子在書中觸目皆是。于是,同樣寫歷史人物,司馬遷筆下的項羽是我們現在也能常見的中國人,柏楊筆下的項羽則讓我們高高在上地以為西楚霸王“低能”。這樣說,當然是對前賢的苛求。因為每一個現代人都應該運用自己的理性去認識歷史,柏楊只是給我們提供了一種方便、一種參照。何況柏楊的中國史是這樣明快可讀,他總結的歷史經驗值得中國人牢記,那些歷史輪回的人物事件,如果今人蹈其覆轍,所謂“后人哀之而不鑒之”,誠使“后人復哀”也。

    每一代人都期待新的歷史敘述。這種歷史寫作是要綜合他們當代的經驗、新的觀念、新的材料發現,更重要的,是要融進他們一代人對人性的理解,對人性的評判。這種中國史書傳統,是中國人生活的百科全書,這一傳統在宋以后中斷。宋明大儒用道學、理學來尋求中國人的意義,使得史書成為帝王之流的“家譜”。好在民間仍牢牢地守護著歷史的良知、正義,守衛著對歷史的信仰,用歷史來規定人生的意義。在《三國》、《水滸》一類的書里,中國人一直在施行自己對歷史、人生的裁決。

    這種對歷史敘述之莊嚴虔誠,對歷史人物的愛恨悲憫,安慰了在罪苦里跋涉的蕓蕓眾生。今天,柏楊、唐德剛、黃仁宇們的努力提供了一個不錯的起點,一種不同于教科書、傳統史書一類的個性寫作,“去年的話屬于去年的語言,來年的話等待另外一種聲音。”

    歷史是可歌可泣的。盡管文明的發展已經使我們中間的一部分人能夠戲說之,但在東亞國家多能健康地對待自己的歷史之際,能夠在小說、影視創作里平常地看待自己的過去之時,我們也有必要重新發掘歷史的意義。毛澤東在《詠史》中說:“一篇讀罷頭飛雪,但記得斑斑點點,幾行陳跡。五帝三皇神圣事,騙了無涯過客。有多少風流人物?盜跖莊足喬流譽后,更陳王奮起揮黃鉞。歌未竟,東方白。”

     

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