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    歡迎訪問海崖學網 您還沒有 [ 登錄 ] [ 注冊 ]

    《百年孤獨》讀后感

    時間:2013-12-16    來源:www.chcompsol.com    作者:林一安  閱讀:

      被譽為“再現拉丁美洲歷史社會圖景的鴻篇巨著”的《百年孤獨》,是加西亞·馬爾克斯的代表作,也是拉丁美洲魔幻現實主義文學作品的代表作。全書近30萬字,內容龐雜,人物眾多,情節曲折離奇,再加上神話故事、宗教典故、民間傳說以及作家獨創的從未來的角度來回憶過去的新穎倒敘手法等等,令人眼花繚亂。但閱畢全書,讀者可以領悟,作家是要通過布恩地亞家族7代人充滿神秘色彩的坎坷經歷來反映哥倫比亞乃至拉丁美洲的歷史演變和社會現實,要求讀者思考造成馬貢多百年孤獨的原因,從而去尋找擺脫命運括弄的正確途徑。

      從1830年至上世紀末的70年間,哥倫比亞爆發過幾十次內戰,使數十萬人喪生。本書以很大的篇幅描述了這方面的史實,并且通過書中主人公帶有傳奇色彩的生涯集中表現出來。政客們的虛偽,統治者們的殘忍,民眾的盲從和愚昧等等都寫得淋漓盡致。作家以生動的筆觸,刻畫了性格鮮明的眾多人物,描繪了這個家族的孤獨精神。在這個家族中,夫妻之間、父子之間、母女之間、兄弟姐妹之間,沒有感情溝通,缺乏信任和了解。盡管很多人為打破孤獨進行過種種艱苦的探索,但由于無法找到一種有效的辦法把分散的力量統一起來,最后均以失敗告終。這種孤獨不僅彌漫在布恩地亞家族和馬貢多鎮,而且滲入了狹隘思想,成為阻礙民族向上、國家進步的一大包袱。作家寫出這一點,是希望拉美民眾團結起來,共同努力擺脫孤獨。所以,《百年孤獨》中浸淫著的孤獨感,其主要內涵應該是對整個苦難的拉丁美洲被排斥現代文明世界的進程之外的憤懣和抗議,是作家在對拉丁美洲近百年的歷史、以及這塊大陸上人民獨特的生命力、生存狀態、想象力進行獨特的研究之后形成的倔強的自信。

      加西亞·馬爾克斯遵循“變現實為幻想而又不失其真”的魔幻現實主義創作原則,經過巧妙的構思和想象,把觸目驚心的現實和源于神話、傳說的幻想結合起來,形成色彩斑斕、風格獨特的圖畫,使讀者在“似是而非,似非而是”的形象中,獲得一種似曾相識又覺陌生的感受,從而激起尋根溯源去追索作家創作真諦的愿望。魔幻現實主義必須以現實力基礎,但這并不妨礙它采取極端夸張的手法。如本書寫外部文明對馬貢多的侵入,是現實的,但又魔幻化了:吉卜賽人拖著兩塊磁鐵“……挨家串戶地走著……鐵鍋、鐵盆、鐵鉗、小鐵爐紛紛從原地落下,木板因鐵釘和螺釘沒命地掙脫出來而嘎嘎作響……跟在那兩塊魔鐵的后面亂滾”;又如寫夜的寂靜,人們居然能聽到“螞蟻在月光下的哄鬧聲、蛀蟲啃食時的巨響以及野草生長時持續而清晰的尖叫聲”;再如寫政府把大批罷工者殺害后,將尸體裝上火車運到海里扔掉,那輛火車竟有200節車廂,前、中、后共有3個車頭牽引!作家似乎在不斷地變換著哈哈鏡、望遠鏡、放大鏡甚至顯微鏡,讓讀者看到一幅幅真真假假、虛實交錯的畫面,從而豐富了想象力,收到強烈的藝術效果。

      印第安傳說、東方神話以及《圣經》典故的運用,進一步加強了本書的神秘氣氛。如寫普羅登肖的鬼魂日夜糾纏布恩地亞一家,便取材于印第安傳說中冤鬼自己不得安寧也不讓仇人安寧的說法;有關飛毯以及俏姑娘雷梅苔絲抓住床單升天的描寫是阿拉伯神話《天方夜譚》的引伸;而馬貢多一連下了四年十一個月零兩天的大雨則是《圣經·創世紀》中有關洪水浩劫及挪亞方舟等故事的移植。拉丁美洲的民間傳說往往帶有迷信色彩,作家在采用這些民間傳說時,有時把它們作為現實來描寫;如好漢弗朗西斯科“曾和魔鬼對歌,擊敗了對手”;阿瑪蘭塔在長廊里繡花時與死神交談等等。有時則反其意而用之,如寫尼卡諾爾神父喝了一杯巧克力后居然能離地12厘米,以證明“上帝有無限神力”等等,顯然是對宗教迷信的諷刺和嘲笑。

      本書中象征主義手法運用得比較成功且有意義的,應首推關于不眠癥的描寫。馬貢多全體居民在建村后不久都傳染上一種不眠癥。嚴重的是,得了這種病,人會失去記憶。為了生活,他們不得不在物品上貼上標簽。例如他們在牛身上貼標簽道:“這是牛,每天要擠它的奶;要把奶煮開加上咖啡才能做成牛奶咖啡。”這類例子書中比比皆是,作家意在提醒公眾牢記容易被人遺忘的歷史。

    名字控

      另外,作家還獨創了從未來的角度回憶過去的新穎倒敘手法。例如小說一開頭,作家就這樣寫道:“許多年之后,面對行刑隊,奧雷良諾·布恩地亞上校將會回想起,他父親帶他去見識冰塊的那個遙遠的下午。”短短的一句話,實際上容納了未來、過去和現在三個時間層面,而作家顯然隱匿在“現在”的敘事角度。緊接著,作家筆鋒一轉,把讀者引回到馬貢多的初創時期。這樣的時間結構,在小說中一再重復出現,一環接一環,環環相扣,不斷地給讀者造成新的懸念。

      最后,值得注意的是,本書凝重的歷史內涵、犀利的批判眼光、深刻的民族文化反省、龐大的神話隱喻體系是由一種讓人耳目一新的神秘語言貫串始終的。有的評家認為這部小說出自8歲兒童之口,加西亞·馬爾克斯對此說頗感欣慰。這是很深刻的評判目光。因為這種直觀的、簡約的語言確實有效地反映了一種新的視角,一種落后民族(人類兒童)的自我意識。當事人的苦笑取代了旁觀者的眼淚,“愚者”自我表達的切膚之痛取代了“智者”貌似公允的批判和分析,更能收到喚起被愚弄者群體深刻反省的客觀效果。

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